stone replaces wood

— walking on two feet is the only means of mobility.
— virgin land difficult to traverse heavily forrested  rivers and sea major means of communication forests natural barriers
— tracks established by migrating animals open up the higher ground become important trackways
— being in a place travelling through a terrain located through trees, rocks, water ways, shape of land take on mythic status
— menhirs – first monumental markers – as nodes in the landscape for orientation and ritual- way pointers thresholds from one territory to another
— menhirs preceeded by rock art? laid out on ground as markers way points
ground as such – the earth ‘staked out’
— rock art in the form of cup marks, spirals and concentric circles made on grounders overlooking [a standing point for observation] not visible, ‘hidden’ secret locations known by an associated network of users added and elaborated over time at seasonal territorial migrations?
— certain types of earth found in graves carries symbolic meaning
— charcoal, burnt bones as a sacred ground
death, fire. 
— ancestors and death ritualised
— burning and cremation as acts of transition- deliberately burnt house become long barrows
— burying things as act of passing ritualising loss death and re birth
— house ritualised as burial place
importance of materials
— transferring symbolic value of places through materiality sea pebbles, quartz, bones, metals, pottery
— materials transfer places  stone taken from preseli mountains transport that place and its symbolic value to the site of stonehenge [in 1923 the petrologist herbert henry thomas identified that bluestone from the hills corresponded to that used to build the inner circle of stonehenge]
— tools as artefacts of transformation hold symbolic value and are exchanged and ‘traded’
— tool artefacts as a means of exchange – socially and politically
— natural stone features understood as ancestral gifts
— natural stone elements incorporated into monuments as a maker of their ritual-ancestral significance
— monuments all important relationship with water as giver of life
— placed in relation to sea [anglesea, cornwall] or rivers or river sources
— tors with water basins suspected of having ritual importance – a place of the ancestors usually highly significant land markers
— situated close to stone monuments and seen their precursors in both form and ritual use [particularly in penwith tilly]
— early travel via rivers sea plains and embed their life creating potential
— gifts given up to rivers and seas
sun, moon and sky
— seasons as measure of time passing moon and sun death and birth
— sun moon as direction and orientation
— ritualised in ceremonial monuments – [newgrange, stonehenge, callanish]
— local monuments oriented towards the seasons sun paths
— sun setting over water set the location of monuments
— change carried by cultural constructions as well as material transformations in subsistence.
— technology and myth [tradition] as generators and drivers of change
— change of subsistence bring about change of being
— being as part of nature – mesolithic/ early neolithic – nomadic hunter gatherer mobile
— being increasingly separated from nature – neolithic cattle herding and domestication increasingly sedentary, bronze age  farmer stable, contained
— rock art mimetic indexical symbolic naturalistic mixed
— re-in-acting and mimicking the form of something as way of holding on to or transferring significance to build new content and meaning
— longhouse to long barrow until the form is establish and the ‘house’ [temple] symbolic
— tor to dolman [quoit] – mimetic transformations through form, shape and material
— distant thing brought close by similitude – form and shape transfers the content and signification through symbolic representation
— abstracted form and representational form are but differential ways of holding symbolic content